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Legends of the Philadelphia Bar

Winter 2002, Vol. 64, No. 4

Criteria:
The Legends of the Philadelphia Bar Committee met regularly over a fifteen-month period (August 1999 to November 2000). Consideration was limited to legends of the past. Nominees were required to have a record of extraordinary skill and service to the bar, the profession and the community in a career of at least thirty years at the bar, unless the candidate came late to the law, or retired early, and some or all of the following qualifications:

  1. A breadth of achievement rather than a single accomplishment;

  2. An enduring contribution to the law;

  3. A deep commitment to achieving equal access to justice for all citizens;

  4. A profound respect for the ethical principles that govern the profession;

  5. A leadership role in advancing the interests of the community; or

  6. A recognized ability to mentor, lead or inspire others in the pursuit of law and justice.

Note: The initial recommendations of the Committee were to provide general rather than specific qualifications and to agree that only the provisions of Paragraph 1 were mandatory and that compliance with all of the other qualifications would not be required.


Legends:


David Lloyd (1656-1731) performed legal services for William Penn in London and was sent by Penn to become Pennsylvania's attorney general in 1686 when Pennsylvania was threatened with the loss of its charter because of unrest among the settlers. He was an early revolutionist and proponent of democracy. He was also active in judicial reform and became chief justice of Pennsylvania in 1718.

Andrew Hamilton (1676-1741) is best remembered for his successful defense of printer John Peter Zenger against charges of seditious libel in the Royalist Supreme Court of New York in 1735. The jury's "not guilty" verdict was later described by Constitutional Convention delegate Gouverneur Morris as "the germ of American freedom, the morning star of that liberty which subsequently revolutionized America." The verdict was also described in the press as having been brought about by Zenger's "smart Philadelphia lawyer," an appellation that has endured to the present day. A native of Scotland, Hamilton came to America in 1697 and, after reading the law, was admitted to the bar of the Chesapeake Peninsula of Virginia. He later moved to Kent County, Maryland, and then to Philadelphia. Hamilton represented the family of William Penn. He served as recorder of Philadelphia, prothonotary of the Supreme Court and as a member of the Pennsylvania Assembly. In 1732, he designed and supervised the construction of Philadelphia's Independence Hall.

Tench Francis (died 1758) was Pennsylvania's attorney general in 1745, succeeding Andrew Hamilton. He was the first Philadelphia lawyer to master the technical difficulties of the profession. He prepared forms and precedents of pleadings for use by his fellow lawyers. Francis was the author of a "commonplace" book praised by Horace Binney for its usefulness throughout several decades after its publication.

Benjamin Chew (1722-1810) had an unsurpassed knowledge of common and statutory law and was known for his solid judgment, superior memory and a remarkable work ethic. Chew was also known for his precision and brevity in making legal arguments, as contrasted with the many verbose lawyers who practiced in his time.

John Dickinson (1732-1808), who wrote many of the documents leading to the American Revolution, is best remembered as a political theorist and statesman. His petition to King George III as a member of the First Continental Congress in the fall of 1774, appealing to the King for "peace, liberty and safety," was highly praised for its eloquence. He was a strong believer in education and the abolition of slavery. Dickinson College is named after him. He fought in the Revolutionary War, as a private in the Delaware militia, during the Battle of the Brandywine.

Thomas McKean (1734-1817) served as chairman of the Philadelphia Committee of Observation, playing a part in the movement for independence and new state governments during the Revolutionary War. He was also a signer of the Declaration of Independence. In 1777, McKean was commissioned chief justice of Pennsylvania. He was elected governor of Pennsylvania in 1799.

Francis Hopkinson (1737-1791) studied law under Benjamin Chew, served in the Continental Congress in 1776 and voted for and signed the Declaration of Independence. Hopkinson, who claimed to have designed the first American flag, has been honored as "The Father of the Stars and Stripes." He served as a judge of the Court of Admiralty from 1779 to 1789. He was appointed by President George Washington to serve as the first judge of the U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania. Hopkinson was a noted essayist, artist and musician.

James Wilson (1742-1798) was the fourth justice appointed to the U.S. Supreme Court in 1789. He had been one of the most forceful delegates in the Constitutional Convention. In the 1770s, he served in the Continental Congress and signed the Declaration of Independence. Wilson's early law practice involved mainly property disputes in the courtrooms in Carlisle, Reading and Lancaster, Pennsylvania. Returning to Philadelphia in 1778, his practice often involved the unpopular defense of businessmen accused of consorting with the occupying British forces. On one occasion, a group of armed militia expressed their displeasure with Wilson by assaulting his house at Third and Walnut streets. A score of prominent citizens rallied to Wilson's defense, and a fierce firefight ensued. Thereafter, the house was known locally as "Fort Wilson." In December 1790, Wilson began a short-lived series of law lectures at what is now the University of Pennsylvania. It was the first formal instruction on law at that institution. A shrinking money market in the 1790s brought financial ruin and hastened the tragic death of this "founding father" of the nation.

Nicholas Waln (1742-1813) was admitted to the bar in 1762 and quickly (before reaching the age of 21) had one of the largest trial caseloads of any Philadelphia lawyer. He left Philadelphia in 1763 to study at the Inns of Court in London, returned in 1764 and achieved immediate success and prosperity. He left the practice of law to become an extraordinarily eloquent and famous Quaker preacher. He mentored many successful Philadelphia lawyers.

Jared Ingersoll (1749-1822) was called "a most consummate advocate" and "without comparison" in handling a jury trial, by no less an authority than Horace Binney. His cases before the U.S. Supreme Court in the 1790s included Chisolm v. Georgia and Hylton v. United States, among the first to flesh out the structure of the federal system. He counted Stephen Girard among his clients. He was a delegate to the 1787 Constitutional Convention, served twice as attorney general of Pennsylvania, and was the Federalist candidate for Vice President of the United States in 1812. A founding member of The Law Library Company of Philadelphia in 1802, Ingersoll was elected the first Chancellor of The Associated Members of the Bar of Philadelphia in 1821.

Edward Tilghman (1750-1815) was a superb jury trial lawyer who talked to jurors as if he was one of them. He mastered what was in his time the most intellectually difficult area of the law, contingent remainders and executory devises. A contemporary analysis of his capabilities noted that he was "an advocate of great powers, purest integrity and brightest honor."

William Lewis (1750-1819) specialized in defending people charged with high treason. Lewis was very active in efforts to abolish slavery and promoted the Act of 1st March 1780 for the gradual abolition of slavery in Pennsylvania. He was a confidant of, and consultant to, Alexander Hamilton while Hamilton served as treasury secretary.

Gouverneur Morris (1751-1816) graduated from Kings College in 1768 at the age of 16, was admitted to the New York bar at 19 and built up a superb practice. During the Revolution he worked to support the Continental Congress and helped prepare the New York Constitution. He was a member of the Continental Congress in 1778-1779. After being defeated as a congressman, he moved to Philadelphia and again built an excellent practice. He was a delegate to the Constitutional Convention of 1787 and wrote much of the Constitution. He became minister to France in 1792 and served as U.S. senator from 1800 to 1802. He also served as chairman of the commission that governed the building of the Erie Canal.

William Bradford Jr. (1755-1795) was appointed by President George Washington in 1794 as the second attorney general of the United States. A former justice of the Pennsylvania Supreme Court, he also served for eleven years as the state's attorney general. He influenced the revision of criminal jurisprudence in Pennsylvania through a statute substituting hard labor for the death penalty.

William Tilghman (1756-1827) was appointed to the bench of the U.S. Circuit Court in 1801 by President John Adams. In 1806, Governor McKean appointed him chief justice of the Pennsylvania Supreme Court.

Alexander J. Dallas (1759-1817) served as secretary of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, U.S. attorney for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania under President Thomas Jefferson and finally as secretary of the Treasury under President James Madison. He took over the bankrupt treasury of the young republic and left it in a solvent state after two years in office.

William Rawle (1759-1836) was a lawyer and district attorney of early nineteenth-century Philadelphia. He studied law with the attorney general to the Royal Governor of New York, completed his studies in London at the Middle Temple, and returned to Philadelphia in 1783 to set up an active practice. Rawle was a charter member of The Law Library Company of Philadelphia and was elected its first Chancellor when that organization became the Law Association. Rawle & Henderson still bears his name; it is the law office with the longest continuous practice in the United States.

Peter Stephen Du Ponceau (1760-1844) was the second Chancellor of the Philadelphia Bar Association. He came to America as secretary to Baron von Steuben and served at Valley Forge during the Revolution. Du Ponceau became an assistant to Robert Livingston, U.S. secretary for foreign affairs, and was quite useful in the role because he spoke English, Latin and French; understood German, Italian and Spanish; and could translate Danish and Dutch. He was a charter member of The Law Library Company of Philadelphia. He argued many cases before the U.S. Supreme Court.

Joseph B. McKean (1764-1826) was the son of Thomas McKean. From 1800 to 1808 he served as the attorney general of Pennsylvania. He was appointed associate judge of the District Court for the city and county of Philadelphia in 1817 and eventually became president judge.

Joseph Hopkinson (1770-1842), the son of Francis Hopkinson, was admitted to the bar in 1791 and quickly developed a notable reputation as a trial lawyer. He served as counsel for Justice Samuel Chase in defense of an impeachment charge. Elected to Congress in 1814, he was appointed by President John Quincy Adams as judge for the U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania in 1828. He composed "Hail Columbia."

John Sergeant (1779-1852) was a charter member of The Law Library Company of Philadelphia and served as Chancellor of the Law Association from 1845 to 1852. Sergeant studied law in the office of Jared Ingersoll. He served in Congress from 1815 to 1820. In 1832 he was the Whig candidate for Vice President. In 1836 he was a member of the Pennsylvania Constitutional Convention.

Horace Binney (1780-1875) was a charter member of the Philadelphia Bar Association. Binney represented the First and Second Banks of the United States as well as several major insurance companies. In 1832, he was one of the leading advocates in Congress for the renewal of the charter of the Second Bank of the United States. In 1843, he came out of retirement to represent the City of Philadelphia in a landmark case involving the will of Stephen Girard and its charitable bequest that established Girard College. Binney's victory in the U.S. Supreme Court assured the future of Girard College and affirmed the City's handling of Stephen Girard's multimillion-dollar estate. Binney was the official reporter for the Pennsylvania Supreme Court from 1807 to 1814 and was Chancellor of the Philadelphia Bar Association from 1852 to 1854. Twice he was offered nominations to the U.S. Supreme Court. After retiring from the practice of law, he continued to be Philadelphia's most prominent public citizen, taking leadership positions on major issues of that era. Binney also wrote historical sketches of some of the Philadelphia lawyers and judges of his day.

Richard Rush (1780-1859) served as U.S. attorney general, secretary of state and was a U.S. minister to England until 1825, when President John Quincy Adams appointed him secretary of the Treasury. As minister to Great Britain in 1818, Rush negotiated the agreement that fixed the 49th parallel as the boundary between Canada and the United States from Minnesota west. In 1836 President Andrew Jackson sent Rush to England to pursue from a British court the legacy of James Smithson to the United States. Rush was successful in gaining the full amount of the legacy ($515,169). This money was used to create the Smithsonian Institution. Rush bequeathed his estate to the Philadelphia Public Library.

George M. Dallas (1792-1864) was of the first generation of Philadelphia lawyer-leaders born in the post-Colonial, independent epoch. He seemed to move freely through local, state and federal office, something that happened frequently from Colonial times through the mid-twentieth century. He served as mayor of Philadelphia, attorney general of Pennsylvania, Vice President of the United States (under President James K. Polk), and minister to Russia, and later Great Britain. Dallas, Texas, is named after him.

David Paul Brown (1795-1872) was a renowned lawyer, orator and dramatist. A protégé of William Rawle, he won distinction and praise for his brilliant and successful defense of Judge Robert Porter in a famous impeachment trial. He wrote reviews of books and plays and wrote a tragedy in verse produced in 1830. Brown was a skilled cross-examiner who was retained in almost every important criminal case in the Philadelphia courts.

Eli Kirk Price (1797-1884) was a leading authority in real estate law. He authored "Law of Limitation Liens Against Real Estate," which became an act adopted by the Assembly in 1853. While a member of the state Senate, he took the lead in bringing about the Consolidation Act of 1854, which extended the boundaries of the City of Philadelphia to coincide with the boundaries of Philadelphia County, a consolidation that roughly tripled the size of Philadelphia.

William Morris Meredith (1799-1873) served as president of the Select Council of Philadelphia, as secretary of the Treasury under President Zachary Taylor, and as attorney general of Pennsylvania during the Civil War (a position of crucial importance). He was the sixth Chancellor of the Philadelphia Bar Association and the first president of the Union League. He died while serving as president of the Pennsylvania Constitutional Convention.

John Cadwalader (1805-1879), a leader of the Philadelphia bar, taught numerous students how to practice law. The hallmark of his teaching style was his emphasis on the highest standards of practice and excellence in the performance of legal services. Cadwalader served as a federal district judge from 1858 to 1879 and was a U.S. congressman.

George Mifflin Wharton (1806-1870) was known for his courteous demeanor and powerful arguments during his many appearances before the state Supreme Court. He led a long and successful legal career and was one of the most active Philadelphia Bar members of his day.

George Sharswood (1810-1883) served for fifteen years as a justice of the Pennsylvania Supreme Court, including four years as chief justice. He previously sat on the District Court of Philadelphia for twenty-two years. Sharswood was considered by lawyers to be a great judge. He had a reputation for being extremely practical, decisive, rigidly impartial, quick to grasp facts, firm in controlling the courtroom, and lucid in his jury charges. He was also a professor at the University of Pennsylvania, serving as dean for eighteen years beginning in 1852.

George Washington Biddle (1818-1897) served on the Philadelphia Common Council, was a member of the Pennsylvania Constitutional Convention in 1872-1873, represented the United States in the Bering Sea dispute with Great Britain, and was in the group representing the Tilden interests in Florida during the dispute over the election of 1876. Biddle was Chancellor of the Philadelphia Bar Association from 1880 to 1891. He donated his law library to the University of Pennsylvania.

Theodore Cuyler (1819-1876) was general counsel of the Philadelphia Railroad Company. He also served as director of the Philadelphia public schools.

Richard Coxe McMurtrie (1819-1894) served as Chancellor of the Law Association from 1891 to 1894. Known to have an acidic tongue, McMurtrie was a prominent lawyer with high social standing. On April 4, 1887, the amended charter of the City of Philadelphia-sometimes called the Bullitt Law-went into operation, and McMurtrie was appointed a director by the mayor.

George H. Earle Sr. (1823-1907) was a recognized leader in the area of municipal tax reform after the Civil War. He risked his successful law practice by asserting himself in support of the cause of abolition.

F. Carroll Brewster (1825-1898) was the first president of The Lawyers' Club. In this role, he helped advance the legal community by unifying the bar and promoting effective legislation and judicial reform. He also served as Pennsylvania attorney general, Philadelphia city solicitor and judge.

John Christian Bullitt (1827-1902) came to concentrate his practice on the organization and reorganization of commercial businesses, representing the Drexel interests. In the more public parts of his career, he participated in the 1872-1873 Pennsylvania Constitutional Convention and drafted the provision calling for compensation for owners of property seized for public use. The Bullitt Bill of 1885 became the Philadelphia City Charter in 1887, and earned Bullitt the title "Father of Greater Philadelphia." His practice was among the most remunerative in Philadelphia, and he was among the first to employ significant numbers of younger lawyers.

George Harding (1827-1902), a student of John Cadwalader after his graduation from the University of Pennsylvania in 1846, quickly became the leading patent lawyer in the United States. Admitted to the bar in 1849, Harding was deeply involved in the litigation over the Morse telegraph patent and the McCormick reaper. He was responsible for the establishment of several fundamental doctrines of U.S. patent law.

Wayne MacVeagh (1833-1917) was a captain in the Union Army and held legal positions as Chester County district attorney and U.S. attorney general. He also served his country abroad as minister to Turkey and chief counsel at the Venezuela Arbitration at The Hague.

Samuel Dickson (1837-1915) handled organization and reorganization matters for clients such as the Reading Railroad, and his partnership with John Christian Bullitt was the predecessor of Drinker, Biddle & Reath. A scholar more than an advocate, he served as librarian for the Law Association from 1860 to 1865 and as Chancellor from 1899 to 1908. He was the first chairman of the State Board of Law Examiners, holding the position from 1902 to 1915.

Caroline Burnham Kilgore (1838-1909) was a trailblazer, the first woman to be admitted to the bar in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. Hers is a story of persistence in the face of adversity. She struggled for sixteen years, from 1870 to 1886, against cultural and statutory obstacles, knowing full well that even if she succeeded, she would not be afforded the opportunity to achieve a status comparable to that of the significant lawyers of her time. Nonetheless, Kilgore persevered, reading the law in the office of her husband-to-be, applying to attend lectures given by prominent Philadelphia judges at the University of Pennsylvania, reapplying when her requests were refused, applying for admission to the bar, lobbying the legislature to change the applicable statutory law, and finally gaining admission to the courts of Philadelphia and Pennsylvania after the law was amended. Kilgore joined her husband in the practice of law, and continued the practice after his death. She persevered in her quest for admission to the bar not for herself, but for the benefit of generations of women lawyers who would follow. In so doing, Kilgore achieved a status in the bar above and beyond most of her contemporaries.

John Graver Johnson (1841-1917) was described by The New York Times as being "in the opinion of some well-qualified judges, the greatest lawyer in the English-speaking world." Barons of industry, J.P. Morgan, Andrew Carnegie and Henry Clay Frick among them, rushed to retain Johnson. Prestigious Philadelphia lawyers regularly sought him out to serve as co-counsel. Major Philadelphia businesses, including Baldwin Locomotive Company, Pennsylvania Company, John B. Stetson and John Wanamaker, relied on his lawyering skills. Still, Johnson's door was open to the average person. Judges, lawyers and civic officials sought his advice before making important personal decisions. Johnson had an incisive mind and a photographic memory. He worked day and night on all kinds of legal matters, paying little attention to the outrageously low fees that he charged. Johnson handled an astounding 168 cases in the U.S. Supreme Court and approximately 2,000 cases in the Pennsylvania Supreme Court. On two occasions he was offered nominations to the U.S. Supreme Court. A self-taught art critic, his collection of approximately 1,300 paintings is on display at the Philadelphia Museum of Art.

Samuel W. Pennypacker (1843-1916) had a distinguished career as a lawyer, judge and governor of Pennsylvania. After seeing active service at Gettysburg and then beginning his legal career, Pennypacker was appointed, then re-elected twice, as a judge of the Court of Common Pleas No. 2. He went on to become president judge, a position from which he resigned in 1902 in order to accept the Republican nomination for governorship. Governor Pennypacker's term saw the creation of the State Police Force, the State Health Department, and the passage of election and registration laws.

Mayer Sulzberger (1843-1923) was a prominent judge, a positive influence on Jewish lawyers, one of the founding trustees of Dropsie College, and a member of the Board of Gratz College and a number of other prominent Jewish organizations. Sulzberger was born in Baden, Germany. He came with his parents to America when he was 5 years old. After graduating from high school, he read the law in the office of Moses Aaron Dropsie. He was admitted to the bar in 1876 and soon gained recognition as one of the city's best trial lawyers. In 1894, Sulzberger gave up the practice of law in favor of a position on the bench of Common Pleas No. 2. It was because of Judge Sulzberger that C.P. No. 2 was known as "the Jewish Court."

Francis Rawle (1846-1930) was a founder of the American Bar Association in 1878. He held several positions in that organization, including treasurer and president. Rawle was an overseer of Harvard University, vice president of The Historical Society of Pennsylvania and a reviser of Bouvier's Law Dictionary in 1883, 1887 and 1910.

Hampton L. Carson (1852-1929) served as Chancellor of the Philadelphia Bar Association from 1912 to 1914. He was a professor of law at the University of Pennsylvania and editor of its legal gazette. Carson also served as secretary of the Constitutional Centennial Commission of 1887.

Richard C. Dale (1853-1904) studied with Judge Robert N. Willson before joining John Christian Bullitt and Samuel Dickson in their law office, where he handled litigation matters. Like Theodore Flowers, Dale was struck down early in life, just as his career was on the rise.

Alexander Simpson Jr. (1855-1935) was one of the founders of the Pennsylvania Bar Association and served as its president and chairman of its Committee on Law Reform for more than twenty years. His treatise on federal impeachments in England and in the United States was recognized as authoritative worldwide. In 1918, he was appointed for life to the Pennsylvania Supreme Court.

Francis Shunk Brown (1858-1940) was attorney general of Pennsylvania from 1915 to 1919. He was a highly respected lawyer with a strong commitment to public service. Brown was special counsel to the Pennsylvania Tax Commission from 1909 to 1911, a member of the Board of City Trusts from 1903 to 1940, and president of the Lawyers Club for forty-two years. He was Chancellor of the Philadelphia Bar Association from 1927 to 1929.

John Marshall Gest (1859-1934) was a Philadelphia Orphan's Court judge and author of the well-known book, The Lawyer in Literature (1913). He was an avid collector of ancient law books and bequeathed nearly 125 volumes of Roman and Canon Law to Jenkins Law Library.

John Hampton Barnes (1860-1952) was Chancellor of the Philadelphia Bar Association from 1924 to 1926. His clients included the Pennsylvania Railroad and Girard Trust Company. He helped create a new Philadelphia City Charter in 1919 as a member of the Charter Revision Committee. He served as a senior partner at Dechert Price & Rhoads.

James M. Beck (1861-1936) served as a Republican member of Congress from 1927 to 1934. He was appointed U.S. solicitor general by President Warren G. Harding in 1921. He also served as U.S. attorney for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania from 1896 to 1900. A leading constitutional authority, Beck argued many cases before the U.S. Supreme Court, including Neely v. Henkel, regarding the governance of Cuba after the Spanish-American War.

Thomas D. Finletter (1862-1947) was lauded as a model judge on the Philadelphia Court of Common Pleas. Prior to his career on the bench, he served as both an assistant city solicitor and assistant district attorney, and had a distinguished career as a lawyer.

Ralph B. Evans (died 1936) headed Evans, Bayard & Frick, a predecessor firm of Pepper Hamilton. He was a leading authority on cross-examination. He was also considered a pre-eminent trial lawyer who excelled in appellate court appearances.

Russell Duane (1866-1938), a founder of the Committee of Seventy, served for many years as its chairman. Duane taught trial practice at the University of Pennsylvania Law School for more than thirty years. He was a founder of Duane, Morris & Heckscher.

George Wharton Pepper (1867-1961) was the personification of an "Old Philadelphia" gentleman. Pepper was a professor of law (1889-1910) and a U.S. senator (1922-1926) in addition to being a first-rate appellate lawyer. His impeccable manners and adherence to a gentleman's code of conduct set the standard for all Philadelphia lawyers in the first half of the twentieth century. He represented high-profile clients ranging from Gifford Pinchot, the "Great Conservationist," to Major League Baseball. Pepper was an outstanding orator, both in the courtroom and at public functions. He never spoke from a written text nor did he use notes; he relied on his quick intellect and a photographic memory. Pepper's 1935 argument in the U.S. Supreme Court in opposition to the Agricultural Adjustment Act is remembered today as the epitome of oral advocacy. Pepper was Chancellor of the Philadelphia Bar Association from 1930 to 1932. He served as president of the American Law Institute from 1936 to 1947. He was a founding partner of Pepper Hamilton.

William Draper Lewis (1867-1949) brought legal education in Philadelphia into the twentieth century, and then, half a generation later, was a leader in the movement for the improvement of American law. As dean of the University of Pennsylvania Law School, Lewis assembled a faculty of full-time scholars and teachers, rather than practitioners, and moved the school itself away from Center City and the practicing bar to West Philadelphia and a university setting. In 1923, he was named the first director of the American Law Institute, and his twenty-four-year tenure in that position cemented the Institute's ties to the City of Philadelphia.

Robert von Moschzisker (1870-1939) began studying law at age 13 in the office of Edward Shippen, whose practice he joined in 1896 after being admitted to the bar. He was elected judge in the Philadelphia Court of Common Pleas in 1903. In 1909 he was appointed justice of the Pennsylvania Supreme Court and served as chief justice from 1921 to 1930.

Roland S. Morris (1874-1945) was a founding partner of Duane, Morris & Heckscher in 1904. He served as chairman of the Democratic State Committee of Pennsylvania and thereafter as U.S. ambassador to Japan. Morris was Chancellor of the Philadelphia Bar Association from 1933 to 1935 and a professor of international law at the University of Pennsylvania Law School.

Owen Josephus Roberts (1875-1955) was an associate justice of the U.S. Supreme Court from 1930 to 1945. Roberts first gained nationwide attention in 1924 when President Calvin Coolidge appointed him special counsel to investigate and prosecute criminal activity associated with the government's lease to private interests of oil reserves valued at more than $100 million. The highly publicized "Teapot Dome" investigation lasted six years and was an acknowledged success. In 1941, President Franklin D. Roosevelt called on Roberts to conduct an investigation of the devastating attack on Pearl Harbor. Prior to his appointment as special counsel in the "Teapot Dome" investigation, Roberts served as an assistant district attorney before developing a successful private litigation practice. He also taught law at the University of Pennsylvania and, during World War I, was specially appointed to prosecute espionage cases. After retiring from the Supreme Court, Roberts was appointed dean of the University of Pennsylvania Law School. He was one of the founders of Montgomery, McCracken, Walker & Rhoads.

Stevens Heckscher (1875-1931) taught legal ethics at the University of Pennsylvania Law School. His most famous case, and an example of his thoroughness and preparation, involved Albright College and the Evangelical Church and two sects of that church. By the time he won the case in the state Supreme Court, he was recognized by church leaders as the ultimate authority on Church history.

Christopher Stuart "Chippy" Patterson Jr. (1875-1933) was a criminal lawyer who had come from an influential and socially prominent family. He represented the poorest people in the city in the early decades of the twentieth century. He was the subject of a popular book by Arthur H. Lewis, The Worlds of Chippy Patterson (New York, 1960).

Thomas Raeburn White Sr. (1875-1959) was a prominent corporate lawyer. In 1924, he formed the partnership of White, Parry and Maris, the beginnings of what is now White and Williams. He fought political corruption as counsel to the Committee of Seventy and as a city solicitor, ultimately directing the arrest of more than 200 people for various political crimes.

William A. Gray (1875-1965) was a criminal lawyer, assistant district attorney and Republican Party stalwart. He was both a witness to history and a participant. He began life at the end of the post-Civil War Reconstruction period and lived to see the civil rights movement that sought to complete the task of achieving racial justice in America.

Horace Stern (1878-1969), son of immigrants, became a brilliant and esteemed chief justice of the Pennsylvania Supreme Court. His legal opinions were marked by clarity of thought and intellectual integrity. Stern was the first Jew to sit on the Penn-sylvania Supreme Court and the first Jewish trustee of the University of Pennsylvania. As a young law professor at the University of Pennsylvania Law School, Stern teamed up with student Morris Wolf to form the law firm Stern and Wolf, the predecessor of Wolf, Block, Schorr and Solis-Cohen. Stern was also very active in the community, having served as president of the Federation of Jewish Charities and having been a founder of the American Jewish Committee.

Henry S. Drinker (1880-1965) was the Drinker of Drinker Biddle & Reath. Representing management in labor matters, he handled the Coronado Coal case for fourteen years, including two appearances before the U.S. Supreme Court. He was also heavily involved in the Franklin Sugar antitrust litigation. His treatise, Legal Ethics, is a standard work on the subject.

William Clarke Mason (1881-1957) became one of the most active and successful trial lawyers of his time. A partner in the law firm of Morgan, Lewis & Bockius from 1922 until his death, Mason also served as Chancellor of the Philadelphia Bar Association, president of the Pennsylvania Bar Association and member of the ABA's Board of Governors.

Walter Biddle Saul (1881-1966) was a trial lawyer in the field of construction and engineering liability. He helped found Saul, Ewing, Remick & Saul in 1921. Saul was on the Board of Education for twenty-five years and was so invaluable to public education that a high school was named after him while he was still alive.

Charles Edwin Fox (1883-1937) was co-founder of Fox & Rothschild, which later became Fox, Rothschild, O'Brien & Frankel. Although he never attended college, he graduated from the University of Pennsylvania Law School. He served as Philadelphia district attorney, first president of the Big Brother and Big Sister Foundation and chairman of the board of the Crime Prevention Association of Philadelphia.

Robert T. McCracken (1883-1960) played an influential role in the fields of law, municipal reform, higher education, religion and business. In addition to being one of the founding partners of the firm now known as Montgomery, McCracken, Walker & Rhoads, he served as Chancellor of the Philadelphia Bar Association and president of the Pennsylvania Bar Association. He was a leading member of the commission that drafted Philadelphia's Home Rule Charter; a trustee of the University of Pennsylvania, serving as chairman of the board from 1948 to 1956; chancellor of the Pennsylvania Diocese of the Episcopal Church; and a director of the Pennsylvania Railroad.

Morris Wolf (1883-1978) founded the firm that is now Wolf, Block, Schorr and Solis-Cohen in 1903 by boldly asking his law professor, Horace Stern, to become his law partner. Wolf was independently wealthy and practiced law only because he had a passion for using his first-rate legal mind to solve his clients' problems, to whom he was fiercely loyal. He never lost this consuming zest for the practice of law, which he imbued into his law firm through his commanding intellect, his intense scholarly interest in the law, his force of will, and his legendary ability to win the confidence of clients. Wolf was a major force in the Philadelphia legal, business and Jewish communities for three-quarters of a century.

Grover Ladner (1885-1954) was a Pennsylvania Supreme Court justice and founder of Clark, Ladner, Fortenbaugh & Young. While in practice, he was considered an expert on conveyancing. A great conservationist, he was instrumental in the passage of the Pure Streams Act and fought to improve the quality of Philadelphia's water.

Francis Biddle (1886-1968), of the long line of famous Philadelphia Biddles, was appointed by President Harry S Truman as a U.S. judge on the war crimes tribunal in Nuremberg in 1945. Under President Franklin D. Roosevelt, Biddle served as the U.S. attorney general from 1941 to 1945. He was chairman of the National Labor Relations Board in 1934-1935 and served on the Third Circuit Court of Appeals from 1938 to 1940. Biddle wrote the autobiographical A Casual Past (1961) and In Brief Authority (1962).

William A. Schnader (1886-1968) was responsible for drafting a comprehensive codification of Pennsylvania's administrative, banking, corporation, fiscal and insurance laws during his four years as attorney general (1931-1934) and another eight years as a deputy in that office (1922-1930). He was also responsible for the successful defense of those laws in court. In 1940, during an argument in the Pennsylvania Supreme Court, Schnader suffered a massive stroke. His right arm was permanently paralyzed. He required the frequent use of a wheelchair. Undaunted, Schnader turned his talents to the improvement of the law. He forged an alliance of the National Conference of Commissioners on Uniform State Laws and the American Law Institute to promulgate a Uniform Commercial Code that was eventually adopted by all fifty states. Schnader's leadership role in that effort earned him the title of "The Father of the Uniform Commercial Code." In 1949, Schnader was appointed chairman of the committee that drafted Philadelphia's Home Rule Charter; and in 1968 he was a leading force in the revision of the Pennsylvania Constitution. He was a founder of Schnader Harrison Segal & Lewis.

Leon J. Obermayer (1886-1984) was the founder and originator of The Shingle, now known as The Philadelphia Lawyer, a Philadelphia Bar Association publication begun in 1938.

Eugene V. Alessandroni (1887-1966) served on the Philadelphia Court of Common Pleas. He was honored in 1959 as one of fifty living Philadelphians who had done the most for the community over the past half-century. The Order Sons of Italy in America Lodge of Pipersville, Pennsylvania, is named in his honor.

Claude Carroll Smith (1888-1983) became one of Philadelphia's leading Quakers. He rewrote the Quaker Book of Discipline and was a leader in the negotiations between two branches of the Quaker faith, leading to their unification. Smith joined Duane, Morris & Heckscher in 1917 and was a senior partner there from 1945 to 1979.

Herbert Funk Goodrich (1889-1962) was a dean of the University of Pennsylvania Law School and a judge of the Third Circuit Court of Appeals. He was director of the American Law Institute, which has shaped American law through the Restatements. He also chaired the commission that reorganized the state's county relief system into the Department of Public Assistance.

Joseph Welles Henderson (1890-1957) became a partner in the nation's oldest continuously practicing law firm, Rawle & Henderson, in 1917, expanding the firm's admiralty practice. He served as president of the American Bar Association in 1943 and was a member of the Board of Philadelphia City Trusts.

Herbert E. Millen (1890-1957) was the first black judge appointed to the bench in Pennsylvania and the thirteenth black judge appointed in the United States. He served on the Philadelphia Municipal Court. He was an active member of the City Charter Commission, which drafted the Home Rule Charter.

John D.M. Hamilton (1892-1973) was chair of the Republican National Committee and speaker of the Kansas House of Representatives. A powerful litigator, he accepted a court appointment to defend Harry Gold, who confessed to passing atomic secrets to the Soviet Union in 1950. Hamilton was chairman of Pepper Hamilton from 1955 to 1964.

C. Brewster Rhoads (1892-1973) served as Chancellor of the Philadelphia Bar Association from 1954 to 1955. In 1922, Rhoads joined the law firm of Roberts, Montgomery and McKeehan, the predecessor to Montgomery, McCracken, Walker & Rhoads. At the time of his death, he was a senior partner in the firm.

John C. Bell Jr. (1892-1974) was chief justice of the Pennsylvania Supreme Court from 1961 to 1971. He served a four-year term as Pennsylvania lieutenant governor, which culminated in nineteen days as governor when Governor Edward Martin left office for the U.S. Senate. He also served as an assistant Philadelphia city solicitor and assistant district attorney.

Lemuel Brad Schofield (c.1893-1955) tried several landmark cases in the Pennsylvania and federal courts. Such training prepared him for some of the toughest administrative challenges of his day when he went on to serve in turn as Philadelphia's director of public safety (then the fire and police departments), and as U.S. commissioner of immigration and naturalization. He was nicknamed "The Major."

J. Austin Norris (1893-1976) was a strong advocate for equality of opportunity. He used political power to advance the status of black lawyers with the expectation that those lawyers would bring about further social change. Norris was the leader of Philadelphia's Seventh Ward, a member of the Board of Revision of Taxes and the editorial voice of several black newspapers. His law firm produced more than a dozen judges and top government officials.

James F. Masterson (1894-1970) was known as a great mentor. Three of his former associates have served on the bench. In 1938, Masterson served as counsel for former Democratic Governor George Earle III, when Republicans unsuccessfully tried to impeach him.

Walter B. Gibbons (1894-1972) was generally recognized as the first "non-establishment" Chancellor of the Philadelphia Bar Association (1943-1944). Gibbons maintained a general practice of law and also lectured on commercial law at Temple University. He was chairman of the Caveat Club, an informal organization of lawyers who presented humorous skits and hosted annual dinners. Gibbons was a member of the Board of City Trusts and the Board of Managers of the House of Detention. He was a founding member of the Saint Thomas More Society of Philadelphia and a board member of many Catholic educational and charitable institutions.

Robert M. Bernstein (1894-1987) was a pioneer in personal injury litigation. A senior partner at Bernstein, Bernstein & Harrison, he practiced law for more than seventy-one years. The walls of his office were lined with letters and autographs of famous people he knew, including Albert Einstein and Golda Meir.

Albert B. Maris (1894-1989), at the time of his death, was the longest-sitting federal judge in the nation. He was appointed to the U.S. District Court in 1936 and the Third Circuit Court of Appeals in 1938. He was instrumental in putting together the internal laws of the Virgin Islands and revising the judicial codes of Guam and American Samoa.

James Patrick McGranery (1895-1962), while on the federal bench, presided over the espionage trial of Harry Gold, which highlighted what it meant to be a loyal citizen and moral human being. McGranery served as President Harry S Truman's attorney general.

Arthur Littleton (1895-1973) was the twenty-ninth Chancellor of the Philadelphia Bar Association and a president of the Pennsylvania Bar Association. He was a partner at Morgan, Lewis & Bockius, where he enjoyed a reputation as an outstanding trial and appellate lawyer. Littleton was a founding member of the National Conference of Bar Presidents.

Robert Dechert (1895-1975) distinguished himself by mentoring young lawyers in the firm he managed with Curtis Bok and Owen Rhoads. President Dwight D. Eisenhower named him general counsel of the Department of Defense in 1957. The taxation course he taught at the University of Pennsylvania Law School is believed to have been the first in a major law school.

J. Harry LaBrum (1896-1970) was a partner in LaBrum & Doak, where he handled admiralty and corporate matters. He became president of the Philadelphia Board of Education in 1961. He was known for his adoption of a progressive fiscal policy for schools that included greater expenditures and increased funding.

Philip F. Newman (1896-1987), an authority in real estate law, was proud of his role in the acquisition and development of most of the properties lining the perimeter of Rittenhouse Square. In 1961, his firm of Newman & Master merged with the firm now known as Blank Rome Comisky & McCauley, where he served as senior partner and counsel.

Curtis Bok (1897-1962) practiced law for fifteen years, served on the Philadelphia Court of Common Pleas for twenty, and then served on the Pennsylvania Supreme Court during the last four years of his life. He had a reputation for skill, courtesy and integrity and as a champion of the rights of the underdog. In one noted case on the Common Pleas bench, Bok ruled that a Philadelphia bookseller had not violated obscenity laws by selling works by authors like William Faulkner. Bok recognized the value of tradition while moving his city and commonwealth into the twentieth century.

Gerald F. Flood (1898-1965) was a state Superior Court judge, and one of the youngest judges to serve on the Philadelphia Court of Common Pleas. Known for his outspokenness and espousal of minority rights, he became the first chairman of the Fair Employment Practice Commission. An excellent pianist, he played in his father's orchestra and later organized his own band.

Raymond Pace Alexander (1898-1974) was the first African-American judge of the Philadelphia Court of Common Pleas, appointed in 1959. He was largely responsible for the end of de jure segregation in Pennsylvania public schools, and urged General George C. Marshall to end segregation in the armed forces. A president of the National Bar Association and a co-founder of the National Bar Journal, he also served on Philadelphia City Council from 1956 until his appointment to the bench.

Sadie Tanner Mosell Alexander (1898-1989) blazed trails. She was the first African-American woman to earn a Ph.D. (in 1921, one of three awarded to African-American women that year, and the first in economics); to attend or graduate from the University of Pennsylvania Law School or to be an editor of its Law Review; to be admitted to the Pennsylvania bar (in 1927); and to serve as a lawyer in the Philadelphia City Solicitor's Office. She drafted the section of the Philadelphia Home Rule Charter that created the Commission on Human Relations, and served on it for many years. President Harry S Truman appointed her to the President's Committee on Civil Rights, President John F. Kennedy appointed her to the Lawyers' Committee on Civil Rights Under Law, and President Jimmy Carter appointed her chair of the White House Conference on Aging.

Nochem S. Winnet (1898-1990) emigrated from Poland in 1905. He began his legal career with the law firm of Aarons, Weinstein & Goldman. Winnet served on the Municipal Court from 1940 to 1950. He then joined Fox, Rothschild, O'Brien & Frankel. In honor of his ninetieth birthday, the firm published Winnet's memoirs in a volume titled Vignettes of a Lucky Life.

Richardson Dilworth (1898-1974) was a complex and often-controversial civic leader. He came to Philadelphia after graduating from Yale in 1926. A combat veteran of World War I, Dilworth gained prominence in his representation of a major newspaper publisher, Triangle Publications. He also became the leading lawyer of the firm that is now Dilworth Paxson. After World War II, during which he served in the South Pacific, Dilworth focused his energies on politics. He was elected to the offices of city treasurer, district attorney and mayor. During his mayoral term, the face of Philadelphia changed dramatically through a nationally recognized urban redevelopment program. Near the close of his career, Dilworth served for six years as president of the Board of Education.

Earl G. Harrison (1899-1955), serving under Presidents Franklin D. Roosevelt and Harry S Truman, presided over alien registration and went on to work on the plight of refugees in the aftermath of World War II. Harrison returned from government service to become dean of the University of Pennsylvania Law School and vice president of the university. When he resigned from the university, he returned to private practice. He remained a public servant throughout his life.

Carl W. Funk (1900-1981) was a nationally recognized authority on banking law. A member of Drinker Biddle & Reath, he served as legal counsel to the banking industry, including the Philadelphia Clearing House. A captain in the U.S. Naval Reserve, he became an expert on priorities and allocations and wrote Navy manuals on termination of contracts.

David F. Maxwell (1900-1985), an expert in corporate law, became well known in the courtroom as a combative litigator. In 1929, he became partner in the law firm of Edmonds and Obermayer (now Obermayer, Rebmann, Maxwell and Hippel). He chaired the American Bar Association's first post-World War II trip to London, where he was received by Queen Elizabeth II in Buckingham Palace.

Joseph Sill Clark (1901-1990), along with Richardson Dilworth, brought reform to Philadelphia government with the adoption of the Home Rule Charter in 1951. Clark was elected city controller in 1949 and was elected mayor in 1951. He was elected to the U.S. Senate five years later, and re-elected in 1962. Clark was a floor leader in the effort to secure passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964.

Morris Duane (1901-1992) was the long-time chairman of Duane, Morris & Heckscher. He was an inspirational lawyer who conducted his law practice with devotion to all clients, rich and poor. He was known for his concern for the health of his colleagues, firm employees and their families.

Abraham D. Caesar (1901-1995) was founder of Caesar, Rivise, Bernstein, Cohen & Pokotilow. He co-authored with his partner, Charles W. Rivise, Interference Law and Practice, which has been cited and relied on by the courts and the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office in hundreds of reported opinions. He is founder of the South Philadelphia High School Alumni Association Scholarship Fund.

Joseph Ominsky (1901-2000) achieved the distinction during his lifetime of being Philadelphia's youngest leader in the Pennsylvania Legislature and its oldest practicing lawyer. In 1935, he was elected to the Pennsylvania House of Representatives. Ominsky's legal career spanned the years from 1930 to 2000. He was the senior lawyer and founder of a general law practice.

Thomas Biddle Kenilworth Ringe (1902-1957) tried cases for the Philadelphia Rapid Transit Company and was an assistant city solicitor before joining Morgan, Lewis & Bockius in 1937, remaining there until his death. He specialized in antitrust and regulatory cases, and his trademark was total preparation. Ringe was the litigator of choice for the Philadelphia Electric Company and Scott Paper Corporation.

Thomas D. McBride (1902-1965) served with distinction as Pennsylvania attorney general and later as a justice of the Pennsylvania Supreme Court. He was a respected criminal defense attorney in Philadelphia. He fearlessly provided counsel for unpopular causes, including the defense of eight Communists charged with conspiracy to overthrow the U.S. government. He was Chancellor of the Philadelphia Bar Association from 1956 to 1957.

Samuel B. Fortenbaugh Jr. (1902-1985) was a founder of Clark, Ladner, Fortenbaugh & Young. An outstanding admiralty lawyer, he was best known for his work in Hickman v. Taylor, the 1947 landmark U.S. Supreme Court case concerning discovery of a lawyer's written witness interviews.

Laurence Howard Eldredge (1902-1982) was a lawyer who was best known as a legal scholar. His published contributions to tort law have been called among the most valuable. After practicing with Norris, Lex, Hart & Eldredge, he established his own office specializing in trial and appellate work. Among other positions, he served as president of the Better Business Bureau.

Ernest Scott (1903-1973) was chairman of Pepper Hamilton from 1964 to 1971. He served as Chancellor of the Philadelphia Bar Association in 1962. A graduate of the University of Pennsylvania and its Law School, Scott later served as a university trustee.

John Mulder (1904-1966) was best known for his work as the first director of ALI-ABA, a position he held from 1947 to 1962. He was responsible for developing the original program and for its growth and improvement. Mulder was also a partner at Wexler, Mulder and Weisman.

Abraham L. Freedman (1904-1971), although perhaps best known for his time on the trial and appellate federal bench, also played a prominent role in the watershed reform period of the early 1950s when the Democratic Party displaced the Republican Party that was dominant since the Civil War era. Freedman was a member of the three-person committee that drafted the Home Rule Charter, which has given shape to city government ever since. He worked with public housing in a time of high ideals and optimism. Freedman was also an authority on domestic relations law.

Theodore Voorhees (1904-1991) was the first vice president of the Philadelphia Reading Railway Company. A former partner in Dechert, Price & Rhoads, he challenged the legal profession to provide a lawyer and an unprejudiced jury for every defendant. Voorhees served as Chancellor of the Philadelphia Bar Association in 1964.

Louis Lipschitz (c.1904-1993) was recognized as one of the bar's finest criminal defense lawyers. A scholarly and successful attorney, he was honored by the Philadelphia Bar Association's Criminal Justice Section in 1982.

Edward W. Furia (1905-1971) was a U.S. magistrate for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania. He also served as U.S. commissioner for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania, clerk of the Quarter Sessions Court and attorney for the state Banking Department.

John Patrick Walsh (1905-1973) at the time of his death was the dean of the Philadelphia private criminal defense bar. He was chair of the Philadelphia Bar Association's Criminal Justice Committee and Judiciary Committee, and recipient of the Temple University Legion of Honor. Once a newspaper reporter, his first love was the Fourth Estate.

Virgil E. Woodcock (1905-1974) founded the firm of Woodcock Washburn Kurtz Mackiewicz and Norris in 1938. Prior to that, he worked at General Electric as a patent attorney. As an active member of the American Patent Law Association, Woodcock was instrumental in drafting the 1952 Patent Act.

Abraham E. Freedman (1905-1980) practiced with the firm Freedman and Lorry, excelling in plaintiffs' personal injury work. His work in the development of the rights of merchant seamen, longshoremen and waterfront workers earned him a national reputation in admiralty and maritime law. Freedman was lead counsel for appellants in Hickman v. Taylor, the 1947 landmark U.S. Supreme Court case concerning discovery of a lawyer's written witness interviews.

Robert Nelson Cornelius Nix Sr. (c.1905-1987) was a Philadelphia lawyer and a member of the U.S. Congress from 1958 to 1979. He was one of the first African-American lawyers to become a major political leader in Philadelphia and the first black representative from Pennsylvania. Congressman Nix's son later served as chief justice of the Pennsylvania Supreme Court.

Robert D. Abrahams (1905-1998) helped establish Abrahams, Loewenstein, Bushman & Kauffman. In 1939 he created the Philadelphia Neighborhood Law Office Plan, charging only three dollars per half-hour consultation. He served as chief counsel of the Legal Aid Society of Philadelphia for more than forty years.

Samuel E. Ewing (1906-1981) was a member of Saul, Ewing, Remick & Saul, where his brother, Joseph, was a name partner. He handled much of the firm's mortgage foreclosure work in the wake of the Great Depression. He later became vice president and general attorney at Radio Corporation of America (RCA).

C. Clark Hodgson Sr. (1906-1987) was a partner at Stradley, Ronon, Stevens & Young. He practiced law in Philadelphia for more than fifty-six years. He was president of the Catholic Philopatrian Literary Institute and counsel for the Archdiocese of Philadelphia.

Lewis Weinstock (died 1987), of LaBrum and Doak, specialized in admiralty, real estate, corporate and probate law, and appellate practice. He made significant contributions to post-law-school legal education and conducted working seminars on corporate law for students at his alma mater, the University of Pennsylvania Law School.

Bernard G. Segal (1907-1997) was a brilliant business counselor and appellate advocate. He argued nearly fifty cases in the U.S. Supreme Court. He also made major contributions to the Philadelphia and American Bar Associations. He was the first Jew to serve as Chancellor of the Philadelphia Bar Association and the first Jew to become president of the ABA. He reorganized the operations of the Philadelphia Bar Association, making it possible for many new members to excel within the Association. A long-time advocate of merit selection of judges, Segal is credited with having persuaded President Dwight D. Eisenhower to seek the views of the ABA on the qualifications of prospective candidates for the federal judiciary. As chairman of the ABA's Standing Committee on the Federal Judiciary, Segal established a deserved reputation for thorough and impartial evaluation of judicial nominees. In 1963, his leadership in civil rights activity led to the creation of the Lawyers' Committee for Civil Rights Under Law. President John F. Kennedy appointed Segal as one of the first co-chairmen of that committee.

Milford J. Meyer (1907-1981) was known for his expertise in railroad, negligence and automobile law. He was the founder of Meyer, Lash, Hankin and Poul. He was an editor and author with the George T. Bisel Company, where he co-authored the Civil Practice Handbook. He served as mayor of Royal Palm Beach, Florida, where he had retired.

Israel "Iz" Packel (1907-1987) was a lawyer, a professor of law, an acting law school dean, a state attorney general, a judge and a Pennsylvania Supreme Court justice. In 1972, Governor Milton J. Shapp appointed Packel to the Superior Court bench and, from 1973 to 1975, to serve as attorney general. In 1977, he was appointed to the Pennsylvania Supreme Court.

John B.H. Carter (1908-1972) was editor-in-chief of the Temple Law Quarterly. He served as a law clerk for Pennsylvania Supreme Court Justice Alexander J. Simpson.

J. Sydney Hoffman (1908-1998) was a senior judge in Pennsylvania Superior Court. Known for his keen legal mind and clarity of thought, he established the Accelerated Rehabilitative Disposition Program. He authored many dissenting opinions that became law in Pennsylvania. Hoffman had also served on the Family Court and Juvenile Court benches.

Donald J. Farage (1909-1998) was a professor of law at the Dickinson School of Law for fifty-two years. He was the author of Pennsylvania Annotations to the Restatement of Judgments. He served as president of the International Academy of Trial Lawyers and director of the International Society of Barristers. Farage specialized in personal injury law.

Fairfax Leary Jr. (1910-1990) helped write the Uniform Commercial Code. He was legal counsel for the General State Authority in Harrisburg in the 1950s and 1960s. A former partner at Saul, Ewing, Remick & Saul, he taught at Widener School of Law until his retirement.

Walter E. Alessandroni (1912-1966) became the youngest Chancellor of the Philadelphia Bar Association in 1958. He was appointed U.S. attorney for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania by President Dwight D. Eisenhower in 1959 and later served as Pennsylvania attorney general. Alessandroni was also executive director of the Philadelphia Housing Authority.

Louis J. Goffman (1912-1982) served as Chancellor of the Philadelphia Bar Association in 1969, and president of the Pennsylvania Bar Association in 1978-1979. He was a senior partner at Wolf, Block, Schorr and Solis-Cohen, and represented many leading commercial institutions, including Provident National Bank.

Joseph S. Lord III (1912-1991) was one of the lawyers to defend members of the Communist Party of Pennsylvania accused of plotting to overthrow the U.S. government, in violation of the Smith Act. Appointed to the federal bench in 1961, Judge Lord spent thirty years as a district judge, including ten years as chief judge. The list of his cases includes the Electrical Equipment Conspiracy Litigation, which he handled early in his tenure, and the suit to desegregate Girard College.

William White Jr. (1914-1990) began practicing law with Duane, Morris & Heckscher in 1939, specializing in estates and trusts. He found his greatest satisfaction in working as a civic leader. He was a founding member and president of the Old Philadelphia Development Corporation from 1971 to 1986, playing a major role in redeveloping Society Hill and much of Center City.

Helen Chait (1914-1992) became the first woman lawyer to hold a leadership position in the City Law Department. She was appointed chief counselor of the Department in 1957, the third-highest position. She served as chair of the Philadelphia Tax Revenue Board from 1960 to 1966.

Lois G. Forer (1914-1994) was an advocate for the powerless. In practice, she was co-founder and first director of the Juvenile Law Center, established in 1966. Some years earlier, while a deputy attorney general of Pennsylvania, she handled the case that compelled the Barnes Foundation to open to the public. In her service as a judge, and especially in her writing, she voiced outrage at how the legal system handled those unable to manipulate it to their advantage, especially women, the young and the poor. Her books include No One Will Listen: How Our Legal System Brutalizes the Youthful Poor, The Death of the Law, and Money and Justice: Who Owns the Law. The last of these won the American Bar Association's Silver Gavel Award in 1985.

Harold E. Kohn (1914-1999) achieved his national reputation in the early 1960s by winning a $29 million judgment against the giants of the electrical equipment industry for conspiring to fix prices. Following that triumph, he achieved great success in antitrust litigation involving numerous other industries. He was also instrumental in creating the procedural means for courts to deal with matters of such vast magnitude: the class action rules and the Panel on Multidistrict Litigation. Not a lawyer of one dimension, Kohn was also recognized for his devotion to civil liberties. He represented Ralph Ginzburg in appeals of a 1963 conviction for mailing obscene literature, argued the Two Guys store chain's challenge to the constitutionality of Sunday-closing laws, and handled a Vietnam War-era challenge to the draft as unconstitutional sex discrimination.

Raymond J. Broderick (1914-2000) was a U.S. District Court judge for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania. He served on the federal bench for twenty-nine years. His groundbreaking rulings in Halderman v. Pennhurst State School and Hospital went to the U.S. Supreme Court and are credited with ushering in a new era of legal rights for the mentally disabled.

Cecil B. Moore (1915-1979) was an activist leader of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, a member of Philadelphia City Council and a criminal trial lawyer. He was also a community leader who confronted major corporations and institutions in efforts to increase black participation and employment. Girard College, the U.S. Post Office and Trailways Bus Company were three of Moore's many targets. He was flamboyant, whether arguing in court or debating in City Council, and was very effective in obtaining results for his clients or constituencies.

Edwin P. Rome (1916-1987) holds the reputation as one of the most tenacious, yet also compassionate and respected, lawyers in Philadelphia history. He joined the firm of Blank & Rudenko in 1954 and was one of the named partners in Blank Rome Comisky & McCauley. He is best known for his court-appointed and pro bono criminal defense work.

Charles Wright (1918-1993) used his position as judge to fight against the deliberate exclusion of African Americans from jury duty as well as for racial balance in jury trials. In 1950, Judge Wright was one of the founders of The Barristers' Association of Philadelphia, Inc. In 1965, he became only the fourth African American to sit on what is now the Philadelphia Court of Common Pleas.

Martin Vinikoor (1918-1976) was noted as one of Philadelphia's finest criminal defense lawyers. He was active in politics and became head of the Defender Association of Philadelphia. He obtained the first large grant from the city to support that association. He became an assistant district attorney and later a professor at Temple Law School.

Juanita Kidd Stout (1919-1998) rose from humble beginnings to become a highly respected jurist and, at age 68, the first African-American woman to be a justice of any state's highest court. After service in the Philadelphia District Attorney's Office, Judge Stout was elected to the Philadelphia Court of Common Pleas and sat on that bench for many years before being appointed to the Pennsylvania Supreme Court. Judge Stout's distinguished career was highlighted by many high-profile cases.

Henry W. Sawyer III (1919-1999) was best known as a fiery, relentless advocate of freedom of religion and freedom of speech. To Sawyer, the intermingling of religion and government represented the ultimate threat to religious freedom, and he succeeded in establishing that principle through tireless efforts in the courts, including the U.S. Supreme Court.

George P. Williams III (1921-1983) was a civil trial lawyer who handled a wide variety of litigation, ranging from complex antitrust and telephone rate cases to personal injury defense. Six feet, four inches tall, and about 250 pounds, Williams was an imposing figure in the courtroom. He often joked that he had trained most of his courtroom adversaries during the fifteen years he taught evening classes at Temple Law School. Williams was a director of United Parcel Service, a company that he represented in operating rights cases throughout the country.

Herman I. Pollock (died 1972) was the original head of the Defender Association of Philadelphia. He developed the Association from a group of a few volunteers and then a few paid members, turning over the reins to Martin Vinikoor when he retired. Pollock served as the chief public defender of Philadelphia from 1946 to 1968.

William F. Hall Jr. (1926-2001) was a U.S. magistrate judge, government lawyer and private practitioner. He was regional counsel for the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development from 1968 to 1974 and represented HUD during the bitterly contested Whitman Park litigation. Hall also settled many cases arising from the MOVE litigation.

A. Leon Higginbotham Jr. (1928-1998) was a towering man with a voice like thunder. He articulated the legal experience of black America with scholarship and understanding. He was a successful lawyer, a partner in Philadelphia's premier black law firm during an era when black lawyers were subjected to many inequities. From 1964 to 1977, Higginbotham was a highly respected federal trial judge, and then served sixteen years on the Third Circuit Court of Appeals, holding the position of chief judge before his retirement in 1993. From 1965 to 1966, he was vice-chairman of the National Commission on the Cause and Prevention of Violence. Higginbotham wrote two scholarly books on law and black citizens, In the Matter of Color and Shades of Freedom. He also taught at the University of Pennsylvania Law School and at Harvard. In 1995, Higginbotham received the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the country's highest civilian honor.

Hiliary H. Holloway (1928-2000) excelled as public sector attorney and large-firm partner while retaining the core values that made him an example to the young, starting in his own household. He was the first African-American officer at the Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia, where he advanced to first vice president and general counsel. The positions, while challenging, allowed him a schedule that permitted him to be a real father. After retiring from the Federal Reserve, he became the first African-American partner at the Marshall Dennehey firm. He frequently summarized his life view with: "It's not the I.Q., it's the I will."

Harry Lore (1932-1996) was a contributor to The Shingle and The Philadelphia Lawyer for more than twenty years. He was deemed a "Renaissance man" because of the breadth and depth of his knowledge of law, literature, history, philosophy and religion. Lore was one of Central High School's most illustrious, although often unsung, alumni.

Patrick T. Ryan (1932-1999) was a prominent antitrust defense lawyer. Ryan joined Drinker Biddle & Reath in 1957. He was elected managing partner of the firm in 1972 and was re-elected for successive terms until he retired. Ryan defended General Electric in a price-fixing case, and he defended the Walt Disney Corporation in an intellectual property suit brought by the Philadelphia Orchestra.

William E. Zeiter (1935-1994) was considered a brilliant and creative lawyer who used his vast knowledge of state laws and their history to make law fair and accessible. After the adoption of the new Pennsylvania Constitution in 1968, Zeiter led a project to update, organize and codify Pennsylvania's statutes. He worked at Morgan, Lewis & Bockius for thirty-five years.

John J. Mackiewicz (1935-2001) was a senior partner at Woodcock Washburn Kurtz Mackiewicz & Norris. A patent lawyer for more than thirty-five years, he previously worked as a chemical engineer and later a patent lawyer for General Electric. He served as president of the Philadelphia Intellectual Property Law Association.

M. Patricia Carroll (1937-2000) took an active role in aiding lawyers who suffered from addictive diseases. She was the founding director of Lawyers Concerned for Lawyers of Pennsylvania. A civil litigation attorney, she practiced law with her husband, John Rogers Carroll, for twenty years.

Herbert B. Newberg (1937-1992) developed a class action law practice and obtained a national reputation as one of the leading class action experts in the country. He authored the book Newberg on Class Action, which remains the bible in the class action field.

Theodore W. Flowers (1939-1982) was a feisty trial lawyer. He excelled in the defense of personal injury cases and then went on to develop a specialization in commercial litigation.

He volunteered to handle civil rights cases in the Jackson, Mississippi, office of the Lawyers' Committee for Civil Rights Under Law. He lectured on trial advocacy and class action procedures. Despite his young age, Flowers held several leadership positions in the Philadelphia Bar Association and was recognized as a rising star. He was elected to the Board of Governors shortly before his career was abruptly ended by inoperable cancer.

Raymond R. Rafferty Jr. (1939-1999) was instrumental in bringing the concept of venture capital to the Philadelphia area. In addition to being well known as an attorney and a venture capitalist, he was the publisher of The Legal Intelligencer during a period of dramatic growth, including the launch of PaLAWnet, Pennsylvania's online legal information network.

Edwin "Ned" D. Wolf (1940-1976) spent his all-too-short career as an advocate for public interest involvement. In 1969 he became the executive director of the Philadelphia Lawyers' Committee for Civil Rights Under Law, which he founded with the assistance of Bernard Segal and Jerome Shestack. In 1974, Wolf mobilized support for the creation of the Public Interest Law Center of Philadelphia, which provides representation to those otherwise unable to afford it.

Andrew C. Hecker (1943-1994) founded Hecker Brown Sherry and Johnson, where he served as senior partner. He chaired the American Bar Association's Tort and Insurance Practice Section and, the year before he died, was largely responsible for raising the necessary funds to satisfy The Philadelphia Boys Choir's mortgage.